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Citation and Style Guides: References

Some of the most frequently used citation formats are APA, Chicago, and MLA styles.

Books (Print & Online)

Book: General

AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx
AuthorLastname, F. N. (Year). Book title. doi:xxxxx

Entire Book: Print Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Entire Book: Electronic Version

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/dxeprint/index.asp

Gutman, R. W. (1999). Mozart: A cultural biography [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0034586772

Entire Book:
Print Version (Two Authors)

Hock, R., & Price, G. (2004). The extreme searcher’s Internet handbook: A guide for the serious searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books.

Entry in Online Reference Work

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism

Entry in Online Reference Work (No Author)

Trebuchet. (2009). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam -webster.com/dictionary/trebuchet

Book:
No Author

Begin citation with title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American industry classification system desk reference. (2000). Indianapolis: JIST Works.

Book: Multivolume

When citing a multivolume work:

Wright, Sewell. (1968-1978). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. (Vols. 1-4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. (1969). Theory of Gene Frequencies: Vol. 2. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., R. F. (2005). William Shakespeare's theater. In J. Rosenblum (Ed.), The Greenwood companion to Shakespeare: A comprehensive guide for students (pp. 47-64). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.


For additional examples, see pages 202-208 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Journal Articles (Print & Online)

Journal: General

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date). Article title. Journal Title, Vol, pages. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

(Note: Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if one is assigned. If you retrieved the article online and no DOI is available, include the journal's home page URL.)

Journal Article with DOI

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Journal Article without DOI

Graham, S. (2006). Impossible to hold: Women and culture in the 1960s. Journal of American Studies, 40, 156-159.

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Journal with Non-Continuous Pagination (each issue begins on page 1)

Simmons, C., & Becker-Olsen, K. (2006). Achieving marketing objectives through social sponsorships. Journal of Marketing, 70(4), 154-169.

Magazine Article

Reed, S. (2006, August 21). Seeing past the war. Business Week, 16(4), 35-36.

Online Magazine Article

Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retreved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/

Newspaper Article

Seward, Z. (2006, December 14). Colleges expand early admissions. Wall Street Journal (Eastern ed.), pp. D1-D2.

Online Newspaper Article

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com


For additional examples, see pages 198-202 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Audiovisual Media

Entire Albums

The Beatles. (1967). Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club band [Record]. United States: Capitol Records.

Individual Songs

Glover, Frank. (2009). One way ticket. On Politico [CD]. n.l.: Owl Studios.

Rerecording by Artist other than Writer

Goodenough, J. B. (1982). Tails and trotters [Recorded by G. Bok, A. Mayo, & E. Trickett]. On And so will we yet [CD]. Sharon, CT: Folk-Legacy Records. (1990)

Spoken Word Recording

Darling, S. (Speaker). (1988). To kill a mockingbird (Cassette). United States: Recorded Books.

Musical Score

Beethoven, Ludwig van. (1932). Symphony no. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson.

Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/

Motion Picture Spielberg, S. (Director). (1982). E.T. the extra-terrestrial [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.
Video

Ryan, K. O., & Schrank, L. (Writers). (2008). Body language I: Beyond words [DVD]. Available from http://www.learningseed.com/

Single Episode from Television Series

David, L., & Seinfeld, J. (Writers). (1995). The soup nazi [Television series episode]. In Seinfeld. New York: NBC.

Images and Tables Retrieved Online

If you use an image, table, or figure (or some data in a table or figure) from another source, then you must acknowledge your source in a note below the table or figure.

Map Retrieved Online

Lewis County Geographic Information Systems (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from http://www.co.lewis.wa.us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census-pop-dens_2000.pdf


List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution.

For additional examples, see pages 209-210 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Other Online Sources

Online Posting: General

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx

(If only author's screen name is available, use that for the author's name.)

Entire website

It is sufficient to give the website address in the text (in parentheses).

Message Posted to Newsgroup, Discussion Group, Online Forum, etc.

Rampersad, T. (2005, June 8). Traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions [Online forum comment]. Retreived from http://www.wipo.int/roller/comments/ipisforum/Weblog/theme_eight_how_can_cultural#comments

Message Posted to Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ForensicNetwork/message/670

(Note: "Listserv" is a trademarked name for a specific software program, so use "electronic mailing list" instead.)

Blog Post

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequisites.php

(Note: "MiddleKid" is a screen name, which the author used when posting to this blog.)


For additional examples, see pages 214-215 in the APA Publication Manual (2010).

Performances & Personal Communications

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, non-archived electronic communications, personal interviews, etc. Because they do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list. The same is true of live performances.

Instead, you should cite these sources in your text with initial and last name of the communicator and as exact a date as possible.

Samples:

M. E. Daniels, Jr. (personal communication, July 4, 2009), explained in an email that . . .

(Student performance, Martha Hill Dance Workshop, Bennington, Vermont, December 13, 2008)

If you are citing a recording or archived copy of the performance or personal communication, these forms are recoverable and should be referenced in your Works Cited list as a video, online forum post, tape recording, etc.

Subject Guide