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Citation and Style Guides: GSA (Geological Society of America) guidelines

Some of the most frequently used citation formats are APA, Chicago, and MLA styles.

GSA Guidelines

  • In the References Cited section, list all references mentioned in the text, figures, captions, tables, and appendices. List references mentioned in the Data Repository as well, unless the DR item has its own reference section.
  • Do not cite papers that are unpublished, in preparation, submitted, in review, or in revision. If a reference has not been formally accepted, cite it as a personal communication along with the year of communication.
  • In the References Cited section, list references alphabetically by author’s surname. For references with two authors, list alphabetically by first author and then alphabetically by second author. For references with more than two authors, list alphabetically by first author and then chronologically, earliest year first.
  • For references with more than 10 authors, shorten the author list to the first author’s name plus “et al.” If author list includes co-chief scientists, please include all of their names, with the rest of the author names shortened to “et al.” See example in the “Book” section below.
  • Spell out journal titles and book publishers. Include the city of publication for books.
  • Include DOI numbers when available.
  • For website citations, include the month and year the site was accessed in parentheses at the end of the reference.
  • For translated works, please see the Varnavskiy et al., 1995, example in the “Journal Article” section below.
  • For references that do not match any of the examples given here, include all information that would help a reader locate the reference.

Journal Article

Arias, O., and Denyer, P., 1991, Estructura geológica de la región
comprendida en las hojas topográficas Abras, Caraigres,
Candelaria y Río Grande, Costa Rica: Revista Geológica de América Central, no. 12, p. 61–74.
 
Balco, G., Stone, J.O., and Mason, J.A., 2005, Numerical ages for
Plio-Pleistocene glacial sediment sequences by
26Al/10Be dating of quartz in buried paleosols: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 232, p. 179–191,
doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.12.013.
 
Brown, J.R., Beroza, G.C., Ide, S., Ohta, K., and Shelly, D.R.,
2009, Deep low-frequency earthquakes in tremor localize to
the plate interface in multiple subduction zones: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 36, L19306, doi:10.1029/2009GL040027.
 
Coogan, L.A., and Hinton, R.W., 2006, Do the trace element
compositions of detrital zircons require Hadean continental crust?: Geology, v. 34, p. 633–636, doi:10.1130/G22737.1.
 
Newell, A.J., Sennikov, A.G., Benton, M.J., Molostovskaya, I.I.,
Golubev, V.K., Minikh, A.V., and Minikh, M.G., 2010,
Disruption of playa–lacustrine depositional systems at the
Permo-Triassic boundary: Evidence from Vyazniki and
Gorokhovets on the Russian Platform: Journal of the
Geological Society, v. 167, p. 695–716,
doi:10.1144/0016-76492009-103.
 
Varnavskiy, V.G., Kirillova, G.L., Krapiventseva, V.V., and
Kuznetsov, V.Y., 1995, Deltaic complexes of the sedimentary basins (far northeast)
[translated from Litologo-petrofizicheskiye kriterii neftegazonosnosti: Moscow, Nauka,
1990, p. 127–137]: Petroleum Geology, v. 29, p. 54–66.
 
Walter, L.M., Bischof, S.A., Patterson, W.P., and Lyons, T.L.,
1993, Dissolution and recrystallization in modern shelf
carbonates: Evidence from pore water and solid phase
chemistry: Royal Society of London Philosophical Transactions, ser. A, v. 344, p. 27–36.

Abstract

Fitzgerald, P.G., 1989, Uplift and formation of Transantarctic
Mountains: Applications of apatite fission track analysis to
tectonic problems: International Geological Congress, 28th, Washington, D.C., Abstracts, v. 1, p. 491.
 
LeMasurier, W.E., and Landis, C.A., 1991, Plume related uplift
measured by fault displacement of the West Antarctic erosion surface, Marie Byrd Land [abs.]: Eos (Transactions, American Geophysical Union), v. 72, p. 501. [Previous format for AGU abstracts. See Reusch et al., 2013, for new format.]
 
McKinnon, W.B., and Schenk, P. M., 2000, Chaos on Io: A model
for formation of mountain blocks by crustal heating, melting, and tilting: Houston, Texas, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXI, CD-ROM, abstract 2079.
 
Reusch, D.B., Karmosky, C.C., Lampkin, D.J., and Schneider,
D.P., 2013, Will a warmer west Antarctic also bring a wetter
ice sheet?: Abstract C21E-07 presented at 2013 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, California, 9–13 December.
 
Sears, J.W., 2012, Making Nuna and breaking Rodinia: Implications
of Siberia-Laurentia connections for supercontinent cycles: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 44, no. 7, p. 378.

Comment, Discussion, Reply

Retallack, G.J., 1993, Classification of paleosols: Discussion: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 105, p. 1635–1636, doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1993)105<1635:COPDAR>2.3.CO;2.

Retallack, G.J., 2014, How well do fossil assemblages of the Ediacara Biota tell time?: Comment: Geology, v. 42, p. e332, doi:10.1130/G34781C.1. [Modern example with e page number.]

Saltzman, M.R., 2001, Earliest Carboniferous cooling step triggered by the Antler orogeny?: Reply: Geology, v. 29, p. 93, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0093:R>2.0.CO;2.

Guidebook

Aslan, A., Karlstrom, K.E., Crossey, L.J., Kelley, S., Cole, R., Lazear, G., and Darling, A., 2010, Late Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado Rockies: Evidence for Neogene uplift and drainage integration, in Morgan, L.A., and Quane, S.L., eds., Through the Generations: Geologic and Anthropogenic Field Excursions in the Rocky Mountains from Modern to Ancient: Geological Society of America Field Guide 18, p. 21–54, doi:10.1130/2010.0018(02).

Barton, C.C., and Hsieh, P.A., 1989, Physical and hydrologic- flow properties of fractures, in International Geological Congress, 28th, Field Trip Guidebook T385: Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, 36 p.

Blackstone, D.L., Jr., 1990, Rocky Mountain foreland exemplified by the Owl Creek Mountains, Bridger Range and Casper Arch, central Wyoming, in Specht, R., ed., Wyoming Sedimentation and Tectonics: Wyoming Geological Association, 41st Annual Field Conference, Guidebook, p. 151–166.

Books

Allmendinger, R.W., Cardozo, N., and Fisher, D., 2011, Structural
Geology Algorithms: Vectors and Tensors in Structural
Geology: New York, Cambridge University Press, 304 p.
 
Burchfiel, B.C., Chen Zhiliang, Hodges, K.V., Liu Yuping,
Royden, L.H., Deng Changrong, and Xu Jiene, 1992, The
South Tibetan Detachment System, Himalayan Orogen: Extension Contemporaneous with and Parallel to Shortening in
a Collisional Mountain Belt: Geological Society of America Special Paper 269, 41 p.
 
Coffin, M.F., Frey, F.A., Wallace, P.J., et al., 2000, Proceedings
of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial reports, Volume 183: College Station, Texas, Ocean Drilling Program, CD-ROM.
[Instance above is an exception to GSA style. Include names of co-chief scientists; additional names may be substituted with “et al.”]
 
Hatcher, R.D., Jr., Carlson, M.P., McBride, J.H., and Martínez
Catalán, J.R., eds., 2007, 4-D Framework of Continental Crust: Geological Society of America Memoir 200, 632 p.
 
Vogt, P., and Tucholke, B., eds., 1986, The Western North Atlantic
Region: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, Geology of North America, v. M, 696 p., 11 pl.

Computer Program

Lahr, J.C., 1999, HYPOELLIPSE: A computer program for determining local earthquake hypocentral parameters, magnitude, and first-motion pattern: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-23.

Lindquist, W.B., Lee, S.M., Oh, W., Venkatarangan, A.B., Shin, H., and Prodanovic, M., 2005, 3DMA-Rock: A software package for automated analysis of rock pore structure in 3-D computed microtomography images: Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, http://www.ams.sunysb.edu/~lindquis/3dma/3dma_rock/3dma_rock.html.

In Press [Manuscript has been formally accepted, but not published.]

Thomson, O.A., Cavosie, A.J., Moser, D.E., Barker, I.,
Radovan, H.A., and French, B.M., 2014, Preservation of detrital shocked minerals derived from the 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact structure in modern alluvium and Holocene glacial deposits: Geological Society of America Bulletin, doi:10.1130/B30958.1 (in press).
[Include DOI number if available.]

Chapter in a Book/Paper in a Multiauthor Volume

Elburg, M.A., Smet, I., and De Pelsmaeker, E., 2014, Influence of
source materials and fractionating assemblage on magmatism along the Aegean Arc, and implications for crustal growth, in Gómez-Tuena, A., Straub, S.M., and Zellmer, G.F., eds., Orogenic Andesites and Crustal Growth: Geological Society, London, Special Publication 385, p. 137–160, doi:10.1144/SP385.1.
 
Sawyer, D.S., Buffler, R.T., and Pilger, R.H., 1991, The crust
under the Gulf of Mexico basin, in Salvador, A., ed., The Gulf of Mexico Basin: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, Geology of North America, v. J, p. 53–72.
 
Shipboard Scientific Party, 1987, Site 612, in Poag, C.W., Watts,
A.B., et al., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project,
Volume 95: Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 31–153.
 
Taylor, J.C.M., 1990, Upper Permian—Zechstein, in Glennie, K.W.,
ed., Introduction to the Petroleum Geology of the North Sea (third edition): Oxford, UK, Blackwell, p. 153–190.

Database

Schweitzer, P.N., 1993, Modern average global sea-surface temperature: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS- 10.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2006, Quaternary fault and fold database for the United States: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/qfaults/ (accessed June 2012).

Wentworth, C.M., Fisher, G.R., Levine, P., and Jachens, R.C., 1995, revised 2007, The surface of crystalline basement, Great Valley and Sierra Nevada, California: A digital map database:

U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-96, v. 1.1, 18 p. and database (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1995/96/).