The Roman Republic was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 B.C.E., and ending in 27 B.C.E. with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.
Polybius was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work, "The Histories", which covered the period of 264–146 B.C.E. in detail. The work describes the rise of the Roman Republic to the status of dominance in the ancient Mediterranean world and included his eyewitness account of the Sack of Carthage in 146 B.C.E. Polybius is important for his analysis of the mixed constitution or the separation of powers in government, which was influential on Montesquieu's "The Spirit of the Laws" and the framers of the United States Constitution.
Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul, and constitutionalist. He is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists and was an inspiration of the Founding Fathers of the United States and the revolutionaries of the French Revolution.
Titus Livius (Livy) was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri ("Books from the Foundation of the City") – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 B.C.E. through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time.